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Prophet Muhammad says, “There are snakes in the Hell, as big as a camel. When they bite someone, it will hurt for forty years. They are there to punish the stingy, the bad-tempered, and those who disturb others.

1. Who are to be punished by the snakes and scorpions in the Hell?

     - Stingy people

     - Bad-tempered people

     -Those who disturb others

 -Those who refuse to pay Alms Tax (Zakat) and Quint (Khums)

Prophet Muhammad says, “If God grants someone with wealth  and he refuses to pay its Zakat and Khums, God will turn that wealth into a snake in the Hell. The snake keeps biting him and saying, ‘I am your wealth whose alms tax and quint you refused to pay in the world.’”‌

Other people subject are to punishment:

-People who do not say their prayers - People who do not pay Zakat -People who drink alcohol -People whose parents have cursed them -People who talk about worldly attachments in the mosque

According to Prophet Muhammad, there lives a gigantic snake in the Hell who shouts, “I am hungry. Where are my people?”‌

“What do you eat?”‌ asks Gabriel.

“People who do not say their prayers, people who do not pay Zakat, people who drink alcohol, people whose parents have cursed them, and people who talk about worldly attachments in the mosque,”‌ he replies.

2. Is Hell a prison for the public or for individuals?

The answer to this question depends on the sin.

Some verses show that it’s a public prison; “He will say: "Enter ye in the company of the peoples who passed away before you - men and jinns, - into the Fire." Every time a new person enters, it curses its sister-people (that went before), until they follow each other, all into the Fire. Saith the last about the first: "Our Lord! it is these that misled us: so give them a double penalty in the Fire." He will say: "Doubled for all”‌: but this ye do not understand.”‌ (Al-A’raf: 38)

Some other verses convey that it more looks like solitary cells, “And when they are cast, bound together into a constricted place therein, they will plead for destruction there and then!”‌ (Al-Furqan: 13)

3. What is the greatest punishment in the Hell?

The worst and the most painful punishment in the Hell is not being able to get to know and to talk to God; “Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled.”‌ (Mutafifin: 15)
Imam Ali says, “I can tolerate Your punishments, but not being away from You.”‌

4. Will believers experience the divine punishment and pass through the Hell too?

Believers too, pass through the Hell. But this happens under special circumstances and without suffering; “Not one of you but will pass over it: this is, with thy Lord, a Decree which must be

the believers, just as the fire became cold for Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim). Then, God will release from the fire the well-doers, but he will leave the oppressors there.”‌

5. Why do believers pass through Hell?

There are two reasons accomplished. But We shall save those who guarded against evil, and We shall leave the wrong-doers therein, (humbled) to their knees.”‌ (Maryam: 72)

Prophet Muhammad said, “All the people, good and bad, pass through Hell. But the fire of Hell is cold for for which the believers pass through Hell too:

1. Seeing the punishment of people in Hell makes them more grateful for what they have in Heaven.

2. Seeing them, will add to the regret of the people in Hell.

6. Do believers who have committed deadly sins stay in Hell forever?
The Qur’an answers this question in the following verse; “Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth anything else, to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin Most heinous indeed.”‌ (An-Nisa: 48)

7. Why is it impossible to get back to the world and make up for one’s mistakes?

When a baby is born, there is no way to go back to the womb of the mother, no matter if the baby is healthy or not. The same is true about our second birth in the hereafter. More than that the prophets have warned man many times, but people are ignorant and forgetful. We turn to God in misery and sickness and we forget about Him when our problems are solved. Therefore, even if people go back to the world, their behaviour won’t change.

8. How many are the guardians of the Hell?

According to the Quran, “Soon will I cast him into Hell-Fire! And what will explain to thee what Hell-Fire is? Naught doth it permit to endure, and naught doth it leave alone!- Darkening and changing the color of man! Over it are Nineteen. And We have set none but angels as Guardians of the Fire; and We have fixed their number only as a trial for Unbelievers, - in order that the People of the Book may arrive at certainty, and the Believers may increase in Faith,- and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say, "What symbol doth Allah intend by this ?" Thus doth Allah leave to stray whom He pleaseth, and guide whom He pleaseth: and none can know the forces of thy Lord, except He and this is no other than a warning to mankind.”‌ (Al-Muddaththir: 21 to 31)

According to these verses, there are nineteen groups of guardians in Hell.

9. Can human body bear the tortures in the Hell?

People will still have the same physical body in the world-after, but God will make it tough and strong, so that it can take all tortures and punishments.

One’s body in the world after will be just like one’s heart. This means that a believer’s body will be as fine and tender as his heart and a non-believer has a body as harsh and tough as his heart.

10. What is the main reason for entering the Hell?
The main reason people enter the Hell is following Satan. But people have the ability to resist Satan. As the Quran says, “For over My servants no authority shalt thou have, except such as put themselves in the wrong and follow thee.”‌ (Al-Hijr: 42)
Meraj E Atash (Pyaas Ki Shiddat)

Zindaan Ke Andhere Mein Kayi Din Aur Raat Beet Jane Ke Baad Ek Din Hazrat Imam Husain (A.S) Ki Ladli Beti Janab E Sakina (Ruquaiya) (S.A) Ne Apne Bhai Imam Zainul Abdin (A.S) Ke Paas Ja Kar Ek Sawal Kiya ?
Bhai Sajjad (A.S) Aap Imam E Waqt Hain Aur Imam E Waqt Har ILm Se Aaraasta Hota Hai Main Aap Se Ek Sawal Karti Hun Aap Mujhe Yeh Batayein Pyaas Mein Kul Kitni Manzilein Hoti Hain..?
Janab E Sakina (S.A) Ka Yeh Sawal Sunkar Janab E Zainab (S.A) Tadap Gayi Aage Badhkar Sakina (S.A) Ko God Mein Uthaya, Pyaar Kiya Aur Kaha Meri Bachchi Tu Aisa Kyon Poochhti Hai..?
Imam Sajjad (A.S) Ne Janab E Zainab (S.A) Se Kaha Phuphi Amma Sakina Ne Yeh Sawal Apne Waqt Ke Imam Se Kiya Hai Aur Mujhper Lazim Hai Ke Main Is Sawal Ka Jawab Dun !
Imam (A.S) Ne Farmaya Bahen Sakina Pyaas Ki Kul 4 Manzilein Hoti Hain
Pahli Manzil Woh Hoti Hai Jab Insan Pyasa Ho Ki Uski Aankhon Se Duwaan Duwaan Sa Dikhayi De Aur Zameen Wa Aasman Ke Beech Ka Koi Farq Mahsoos Na Ho !
Janaab E Sakina (S.A) Haan Maine Apne Bhai Qasim Ko Baba Se Kahte Suna Tha Chacha Jaan Main Itna Pyasa Hun Ke Mujhe Zameen Se Aasman Tak Sirf Dhuwaan Sa Dikhayi Deta Hai !
Imam (A.S) Ne Farmaya Pyaas Ki Doosri Manzil Hai Jab Kisi Ki Zubaan Sookh Kar Taalu Se Chipak Jaye !
Janab E Sakina (S.A) Haan Bhai Akber Ne Apni Sookhi Zubaan Baba Ke Dahen Mein Rakh Kar Bahar Nikal Li Thi Aur Kaha Tha Baba Aaapki Zubaan To Meri Zubaan Se Zyada Khushk Hai Tab Shayed Mera Baba Imam Husain (A.S) Pyaas Ki Doosri Manzil Par Tha !
Imam Ne Phir Fermaya - Pyaas Ki Teesri Manzil Woh Hai Jab Kisi Machli (Fish) Ko Paani Se Nikal Kar Ret Par Daal Diya Jata Hai Aur Woh Machli Kuch Der Tadapne Ke Baad Bilkul Saakit (Khamosh) Ho Kar Apna Muh Kholti Hai Aur Band Karti Hai!
Janab E Sakina (S.A) - Haan Mere Baba Ne Bhai Ali Asghar Ko Karbala Ki Jalti Ret Par Lita Diya Tha To Asgher Bhi Tadapne Ke Baad Saakit Sa Tha Aur Apna Muh Kholta Tha Phir Band Karta Tha Shayed Mera Bhai Ali Asgher Us Waqt Pyaas Ki Teesri Manzil Mein Tha !
Imam Ne Phir Farmaya - Pyaas Ki 4th Aur Aakhri Manzil Woh Hai Jab Insaan Ke Jism Ki Nami Bilkul Khatm Ho jati Hai Aur Uska Gosht Haddiyon (Bones) Ko Chhor Deta Hai Aur Insan Ki Maut (Death) Ho Jati Hai !
Itna Sun Kar Janab E Sakina (S.A) Ne Apne Hathon Ko Imam Zainul Abdin (A.S) Ke Aage Kiya Aur Kaha Bhai Sajjad Main Shayed Pyaas Ki Aakhri Manzil Mein Hun Dekho Mere Jism Ke Gosht Ne Haddiyon Ka Sath Chhor Diya Hai Aur Main Anqareeb Apne Baba Imam Husain (A.S) Ke Pas Jane Wali Hun !
Janab E Sakina (S.A) Ke Yeh Alfaaz Sunkar Qaid Khaane Mein Ek Kohraam Barpa Ho Gaya !
Haye Pyaasi Wa Mazloom Shahzadi Sakina (S.A)

Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) ne farmaya
"Ay Mere Chahne walo'n Allah se daro aur Hamare liye Zeenat ka Sabab Ban'o Apne Amaal'o' kirdar ke zariye Hamare Liye baays-e-Zillat na Bano.
Ref: kafi v 2 pg 77.
How can a thing the existence of which is dependent on you be taken as a proof for your existance?
Is there anything more evident than your "self" disclose you?         
Are you hidden to need a guide to find you? Surely you are not.             
Are you far-away to need your footprints to find you? Surely you are not!       
Blind may the eyes be which do not see you watching and guarding your “self”        
(Arafa prayer; Biharol Anwar, Vol. 98, P. 226)

2 - He who has you has everything, and he who has deprived himself of you is the poorest in the world.
Loser is the one who chooses and be content with anyone or anything other than you.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 98, P. 228)
3 - Never will be salvaged the people who win the consent of the creature at the cost of the dissatisfaction of the creator.
(Maktal Khawarazmi, Vol. 1, P. 239)
4 - No one will feel secured on the Resurrection Day except those who feared God in this world.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 44, P. 192)
5 - The Almighty God said:
" The believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other, enjoin good and forbid evil..."
God attaches primary importance to enjoining good and forbidding evil" as a duty for men and women. For he knows that if it were fulfilled all the other duties, easy or hard, will be accomplished. That is because "enjoining good and forbidding evil" is a call for Islam; it remains the rights
of the oppressed and opposes tyrants.
(Tohafol Okool, P. 237)
6 - O' people, the Messenger of God said : Whoever sees an aggressive tyrant legalizes the forbidden of God, breeches divine laws, opposes the tradition of the Prophet, oppresses the worshippers of God, but does  not concede his opposition to God in word or indeed, surely Allah will place that tyrant (in the Hell ) where he deserves.
(Maktal Khawarazmi, Vol. 1, P. 234)
7 - People are slaves to the world, and as long as they live favorable and comfortable lives, they are loyal to religious principles. However, at hard times, the times of trials, true religious people are scarce.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 117)
8 - One who pursues a goal through sinful ways, will ironically distance himself from that goal, and will approach what he was afraid of.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 120)
9 - Don't you see that the right is not conveyed and the wrong is not prohibited. Let believers wish to die and righteously meet their God.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 117)
10 - To me, death is nothing but happiness, and living under tyrants nothing but living in a hell.
(Tohafol Okool, P. 245)
11 - Your difficulties are worse than others, because you were deprived of the rank of the scholars - considering your legitimacy and merit -
(These difficulties are) because administering the affairs of the society and conveying the (religious) rules must be done by scholars who truly believe in God and know what is permitted and what is forbidden by God.
But you were deprived from this position and rank for you withdrew from (supporting) the truth. You changed the tradition of the prophet,despite the clear and disclosed proofs.
If you had withstood and were patient against the torture and annoyance (of the tyrants) for the sake of God, then the divine affairs would have stayed in your hands, and you were the ones to whom would be referred.
But you made the tyrants dominant on you and left the divine affairs in their hands, while they shamelessly do the forbidden and notoriously live a licentious life. Your (fear) from death and attachment to this world have encouraged the tyrants to establish dominance over you.
(Tohafol Okool, P. 238)
12 - O' God! Surely you know that whatever we did was not a competition to gain worldly positions and not for the worthless physical attractions of the world.
But to show the signs of religious ways and to remove corruption from your lands, so that the oppressed feel secured and act according to your traditions and rules.
(Tohafol Okool, P. 239)
13 - I never revolted in vain, as a rebel or as a tyrant, but I rose seeking reformation for the nation of my grandfather Mohammad. I intend to enjoin good and forbid evil, to act according to the traditions of my grandfather, and my father Ali Ibn Abi-Talib.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 44, P. 329)
14 - If the world is counted valuable; surely the house of God's rewards is higher and more worthy.
If bodies were created for death; surely being killed with swords in the way of God is a more honorable death.
If the share of daily sustenance, of each creature is provided by the creator, surely it is not descent for man to be greedy for gaining and eating too much.
If wealth is amassed for one day to be left.
Then why a free man becomes so miser on something he has to leave.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 44, P. 374)
15 - If you don't believe in any religion and don't fear the Resurrection Day, at least be free in this world.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 45, P. 51)
16 - Those who worship God for the hope of gaining, they're not real worshippers, they're merchants.
Those who worship God out of fear (of punishment), they're slaves. And those who worship God to be grateful towards their creator, they are the free people, and their worship is a real one.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 117)
17 - Beware that the need of people to you is among the blessings of God to you. So do not scare away the needy people when they come to you, as the God's blessings will return and go elsewhere.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 121)
18 - O' people take a lesson from the advice that God gave to His true believers, among which reproaching the Jewish scholars where he said:
“Why do Jewish scholars not prohibit their people from saying sinful words?"
and also (the Almighty ) said :
"Those who turned into atheists, from among the descendants of Israel, were cursed "... his Almighty added :
"Certainly evil was that which they did. "
Surely the God criticized them for they turned a blind eye to what they saw of evil and corruption from the tyrants of their time out of greed or fear.
The Almighty God says: “Do not fear people, rather, fear Me!”
The Almighty said: “The believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil.”
(Tohafol okool, P. 237)
19 - Whoever seeks the satisfaction of people through disobedience of God; Then God subjects him to people.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 126)
20 - Avoid oppressing the one who does not have any supporter against you, other than the Almighty God.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 118)
21 - One who reveals your faults to you like a mirror is your true friend, and one who flatters you and covers up your faults is your enemy.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 128)
22 - Wisdom will not be complete except by following the truth.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 127)
23 - Associating with corrupt people makes you subject to suspicion.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 122)
24 - Crying out of fear from God is salvation from the hellfire.
(Mostadrakol Wasael, Vol. 11, P. 245)
25 - A man came to Imam Hussein (Master of the martyrs) and said: I am a sinful man and can't avoid doing sin, please advise me. Imam (PBUH) said: If you can do these five things, then commit sin as much you like.
First of all: don't eat the sustenance of God and commit sin as much you like. Second: go beyond the domain of God and commit sin as much you like. Third: seek a site where God cannot observe you and commit sin as much you like. Fourth: if the Angel of death comes to you to take away your soul, expel him away from yourself and commit sin as much you like. Fifth: If the Angel of Hell was about to throw you into the hell-fire, stop him and commit sin as much you like.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 126)
26 - Avoid doing what makes you obliged to apologize for it. True believers never do anything for which they have to apologize.
Fake believers, on the contrary, keep doing wrong and say they are sorry in the after math.
(Tohafol Okool, P. 248)
27 - Hastiness is foolishness.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 122)
28 - Do not permit anybody (to come in) before saying Salam (greetings).
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 117)
29 - Among the signs of ignorance is arguing with irrational people.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 119)
30 - Among the signs of a learned man is criticizing his own words and being informed of various viewpoints.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 119)
31 - Imam Hussein (PBUH) was asked: O 'the son of the prophet how is life going on? Imam replied: Life is going on, in such a way that I have a God
over me, the hell-fire in front of me, death is looking for me, there is no escape of the Day of Judgment, I am taken as a hostage by my own deeds, things do not turn out to be the way I like, I cannot repel what I hate, the affairs are in someone else's hands. He tortures me if he likes and he forgives if he wishes. Therefore, is there anybody poorer than me?
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 116)
32 - Whoever becomes generous becomes a noble; and whoever becomes stingy becomes visions and mean-spirited
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 121)
33 - The most generous person is the one who offers help to those who do not expect him to help.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 121)
34 - Whoever sorts out a problem of a believer, God sorts out his difficulties of this world and the here-after.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 122)
35 - If you heard a person discredits the dignity and the honor of people, then try not to get introduced to him.
(Balagatol Hussein (A.S), P. 284)
36 - Never raise your need except to three (kinds of people): to a religious, to a brave man or to a nobleman.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 118)
37 - Seventy rewards are for Salam (Islamic greeting ) ; sixty nine for the starter and one for the one who replies.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 120)
38 - Act like the one who believes in punishment for sin and reward for good deeds.
(Biharol Anwar, Vol. 78, P. 127)
39 - Should poverty, illness, and death not exist, man would not bow to anything.
(Nozhatol Nadher wa Tanbeehel Al - Khatir, P. 80)
40 - You deserve the Paradise, don't sell yourself for anything less. Whoever is content to the worldly pleasures, has sufficed to something base and low.

Al-Qasim (A.S) was standing amongst the rest who were still alive with Imam Husain (A.S). Some of the narrations state that Al-Qasim was martyred before his uncle Al-Abbas (A.S) was martyred, and some say after. Despite all of that, Al-Qasim was in the camp of Imam Husain (A.S) when suddenly, he heard his uncle crying,” "Is there not a protector who can defend the sanctity of the Prophet? Is there not a believer who may fear God of that which is befalling us? Is there not a deliverer who may aspire to God's reward in alleviating our distress?"
On hearing that, the combat spirit, the spirit of sacrificing became high inside the heart of Al-Qasim (A.S). He went to his uncle and said,” O uncle, give me the permission to fight!” He (A.S) told him,” O son Qasim, you are the deposit of my brother, you are the mark!”
He continuously kissed the hands and feet of Imam Husain (A.S) until Imam Husain (A.S) said to him,” O son Qasim, you are walking toward death on your feet!”
Qasim (A.S) answered,” How could not, he who see you with no aid or supporter?! Aren’t you crying for a helper or supporter?” Until he said,” O MY uncle, May I sacrifice my own self for you, and May I sacrifice my soul to protect yours. O uncle, allow me to fight, I cannot stand to live anymore!”
On hearing this, Imam Husain (A.S) hugged him, and started to weep loudly, as if he was calling,” O brother, O Hassan!”
The Sadness returned back on the heart of Abu Abdullah Al-Husain (A.S), because not only was he bidding a young man farewell, but he also bore a strong resemblance to his brother AL-Hassan Almujtaba (A.S).
Before he set off to the battlefield, Imam Husain (A.S) said to him,” O Qasim, come to me”,
Then he took him to the tent of the poisoned Imam Hassan (A.S), where a box was located there.
The box contained deposits of Imam Hassan (A.S), clothes, and the military uniform of Imam Al-Hassan (A.S).
Imam Husain (A.S) took out the clothes of Imam Hassan, his turban, and the sword of Imam Al-Hassan, and put them on Al-Qasim (A.S). Then he (A.S) said,” O son, Qasim! Go to the battlefield!”
He went to the battlefield and was reciting “If you do not know me I am the son of Hassan, the grandson of the Prophet, the chosen one, the confidante, this is Husain similar to the one captivated by the mortgager, in the midst of the people who may be deprived of rain water”.
Then He began to fight the enemies until he killed a large number of them.

Self-Praise of Al-Qasim (A.S)
If we recognize the action of Al-Qasim when he bent to fix the broken strap of his shoe, despite the gathering of the army which surrounded him, and their terrifying shouts, you will touch on the heroism of this young Alawi-Hashimite and his ancestors.
He did not care about any of his enemies, all he was concerned about was avoiding walking in one shoe, especially because there was (karaha: unlikeness, a shar'i ruling) to walk in one shoe, and there might be a faultfinding person who might see him in this way. Let us take a deep look at what Hameed bin Muslim said about this noble and self-praise character.
Hameed bin Muslim, who says that a youth, similar to 'the first Splinter of the New Moon', stepped into the battlefield. He held a sword in his hand and wore a cloak and shirt. He wore shoes on his feet, of which one had a broken strap, and if I do not forget it was the left one.
We can’t imagine the value of Al-Qasims' heroism. He stepped on foot to the battlefield, and even after his shoe was broken, he was not worried about the countless fighters surrounding him, who were all fully armored, and he leaned down to fix his shoe. That is how some historians narrated this incident (the son of messenger of Allah (S.W.T), refused to walk with naked feet in the battlefield). This was unmatched bravery, and remarkable prowess.

Al-Qasim (A.S) following the path of the martyrs
When Al-Qasim bent to mend his shoe, the villainy spirit which was represented by Azdi began to control him. This is what Hameed bin Muslim meant when he narrated the following:
Umar bin Sa'ad bin Nufayl Azdi said, “I desire to attack him”. I said, “Glory be to Allah! Why so? This army which has surrounded him from all sides will surely kill him”. He said, “By Allah! I shall attack him, and I will make his mother to weep over him”. He attacked him while the child was fixing his shoe and before he could turn his face towards him; he dealt a blow upon his head with his sword and slit it. The child fell down on his face upon the ground and called out, “Peace be up on you, O dear uncle! Come to my aid”. Then I saw Husain (A.S) standing at the head of Qasim, who was stretching his feet upon the ground. Imam Husain (A.S) said, “By Allah! It is hard upon your uncle that he could not come to your aid when you called him, or he answered but it could not benefit you”. (May Allah's Mercy and Blessings be upon him).
Then Husain (A.S) said,
“By Allah! Here he has numerous murderers while his aides are quite less”.

Historians stated:
Imam Husain (A.S) leaned down to Al-Qasim and held him to his chest –embracing him, and took him towards the camp. Whereas at this influential scene Imam Husain bended and bended down, Al-Qasim’s feet were drawing lines on earth, but why? Was it because he was taller than Imam Husain (A.S)? No, but because the misfortune of losing of Al-Qasim, foiled the morale of our Imam (A.S).
Imam Husain (A.S) Arrived to the tent and lay him down in the tent of the martyrs (A.S). Then he (A.S) said,” O cousins, Patience on death! You won’t see any mortification, after this day, alas!”

Women seek permissions
Some said that, when Imam Husain (A.S) brought Al-Qasim to the tent where was Ali Al-Akbar, he lay Al-Qasim next to Ali (A.S). He was looking at the face of Ali Al- Akbar once, then to the face of Al-Qasim, while he was wiping his tears with his sleeves. Some said that he reclined between them for a long time.
The mother of Al-Akbar and the mother of Al-Qasim were waiting for him to leave the tent, because they were too shy to weep over their sons in his presence. Therefore, they went to Zainab (S.A), and asked her to go and ask Imam Husain (A.S) to let them cry over the martyred youth.
Later, Zainab (S.A) came to Imam Husain (A.S) and said,” O Abu Abdullah, may Allah help you for this disaster. O Abu Abdullah, these are the mothers of Al-Qasim, and Al-Akbar (A.S), they want to enter to cry over their sons, but they feel shy because of you.”
Imam Husain (A.S),” It’s the chief of disasters and calamities, let them come and cry over their sons”
Then Zainab Alhawra (A.S) called them,” O Laila, O Ramla, come to cry and weep!”

Allamah Majlisi says that I have read in some books, that when Imam Hussein (A.S) decided to leave Medina, Ummu-Salamah came to him and said, "O my dear son! Do not aggrieve me by going towards Iraq. For I have heard your Grandfather say that my son Hussein will be killed in Iraq at a place called Karbala." Imam replied:

"O dear Grandmother! I too am aware of it and I shall be forcefully killed while there is no escape from it. By Allah! I know the day when I shall be killed and recognize my murderer besides being aware of the Mausoleum where I shall be buried. And I know all those people among my family, relatives and followers who shall die along with me. Then Imam said:

"O Grandmother! Allah Almighty desires to see me killed and that my head be severed with cruelty and injustice. Besides (Allah) desires that my family and womenfolk be expelled, and my children oppressed, bare headed, arrested and bound in chains. And they would plead and call out for help, but none would come to their aid."

In another tradition it is stated that the holy Prophet (PBUH) gave some sand to Ummu-Salamah and said: when it turns into blood know that my beloved Hussein has been martyred.
The map shows the Route that Imam Hussein (A.S) took when he left Makkah for Iraq. The date was 8th Zilhijja 60 Hijri (10.9.680 AD). With him there were about 50 people including women and children of his family and friends. His uncle Ibne Abbas and his brother Muhammad-e-Hanafiya did not go with him. They came to bid farewell and tried to warn the Imam of the dangers ahead. Muhammad-e-Hanafiya told him that the Makkans and other pilgrims were wondering why he was leaving just one day before the Hajj. Imam left a letter with his brother which explained his position clearly. The letter read as follows
"I have not come out to stir emotions, to play with oppression. I want to bring the Ummah back to the path of Amr-bil-Marouf & Nahyi Anil Munker. I want to lead them to the path of my Grandfather and my father Ali Ibne Abi Talib."

After leaving Makkah there were 14 places mentioned in history books where Imam either stayed or met people or gave sermons.

1. Saffah: Here Imam met Farazzdaq the poet whom Imam asked about conditions in Kufa. He said, ' He said, 'People's hearts were with you but their swords were against you.' Imam replied, 'Allah does what he wishes. I leave it to him who proposes the just cause.

2. Dhat-el-Irq: Here Imam's cousin Abdullah Ibne Jafar brought his two sons Auwn and Mohammad to their mother Hazrat Zainab and to help the imam. He tried to persuade the Imam to return to Madina but Imam replied, 'my destiny is in the hands of Allah.'

3. Batn-er-Rumma: Imam sent a letter to Kufa with Qais bin Mashir, met Abdullah bin Mutee who came from Iraq. When he heard of Imam's intention, he tried to stop him. He said Kufans were not faithful and could not be trusted. But Imam continued his journey.

4. Zurud: Imam met Zohair Ibne Qain. Zohair was not among the followers of Ahl-ul-bayt. But when Imam told him of the purpose of his journey Zohair gave all his possesions to his wife, told her to go home and said that he wished to be martyred with the Imam.
5. Zabala: Imam learnt from two tribesmen coming from Kufa of the death of Hazrat Muslim. Imam said, 'Innan Lillahe wa Inna Elaihe Rajeoon. Indallah-Nahtasib Anfusana.' 'We are for Allah and we shall return to Him who surely accouts for our sacrifices. Asadi Tribesmen tried to dissuade the Imam from his journey but he persisted. Here Imam told his companions the news of the death of Muslim and Hani and that people in Kufa were not prepared to be their helpers. Imam said, 'Those who want to depart leave now.' Hoards of various tribesmen who had followed the Imam in the hope of collecting the booty realised their false hopes and scattered to their own homes. Only 50 odd people remained.

6. Batn-e-Aqeeq: Imam met a man from the Tribe of Akrama who told him that Kufa was no more a friendly town and was now surrounded by Yazid's army. No one could get in or out of the town. But the Imam carried on.

7. Sorat: Imam stayed the night here and in the morning ordered his companions to take as much water as they can.

8. Sharaf: While the Imam was passing from this place, one of his companions shouted that he could see the approach of an army. Imam asked for a safe place, preferably a mountain behind them. A guide took them to the nearest mountain.

9. Zuhasm: It was here that Imam met Hurr's army of 1000 men. They were thirsty so Imam ordered his men to give them water. Imam himself helped several thirsty soldiers to drink. Even animals were given water to drink. Zohr prayers were led by the Imam and all followed him including Hurr's soldiers. Here Imam told hurr about many letters from Kufa. He said, 'O People of Kufa, you sent me your delegations and wrote me letters that you had no Imam and that I should come to unite you and lead you in the way of Allah. You wrote that we Ahl-ul-bayt are more qualified to govern your affairs than those who claim things to which they have no right and act unjustly and wrongly. But if you have changed your mind, have become ignorant of our Rights and have forgotten your promises, I shall turn back. But he was denied to turn back by Hurr's army and was lead to by-pass Kufa.

10. Baiza: Imam reached Baiza the next day and delivered one of his most famous sermons. 'O People, the Prophet has said that if a man sees a tyrannical ruler transgressing against Allah and the Prophet and oppressing people but does nothing by word or action to change the situation then it will be just for Allah to place him where he deservingly belongs. Do you not see to what low level the affairs have come down... Do you not observe that truth has not adhered to and falsehood has no limit. And as for me, I look upon death as but a means of attaining martyrdom and I consider life among transgressors as nothing but an agony and an affliction.'

11. Uzaibul Hajanat: Here Imam stayed away from the army of Hurr and met Trimmah bin Adi. After having learnt about the Kufan abandonment of his envoy it was clear that he had no hope of support or even survival in Kufa. Nevertheless he refused an offer of safety, if not success extended to him. Trimmah pleaded to him to accept the offer of 20,000 trained men of his tribe to help him if he wanted to go to Kufa or he could retire to the mountains and safety. Imam replied to Ibne Adi, 'Allah bless you and your people. I cannot go from my word. Things are destined. It is clear from this reply that he was fully aware of the dangers he would face and that he had a certain strategy and plan in mind to bring about a revolution in the conscience of the Muslim Ummah. He did not try to mobilise military support which he could easily have done in Hejaz nor did he try to exploit whatever physical strength was available to him.

12. Qasr-e-Bani Makatil: It was evident here that Kufa was no more his destination. As Hurr did not want to leave him, he by-passed Kufa and took a new route. Resting in the afternoon he uttered 'Inna Lillah.' His 18 years old son Ali Akber approached him and enquired. Imam said that in his sleep he had heard someone saying that these people were going to their deaths. Ali Akbar asked, 'Are we not on the Right path. Death meant nothing to them. Death of this kind transforms into the glory of martyrdom.
13. Nainawa: At this place a messenger of Ibne Zaid brought a message for Hurr not to leave the Imam. The battered caravan passed through Ghaziriya to a place called Karbala. Imam sighed, asked for the name of the place. Someone said Karbala. Imam said, yes, this is the place of Kerbin-wa-bala. (a place of pain and torture.) Let us stop here for we have arrived at our destination. This is the place of our Martyrdom. This is Karbala.

14. Karbala: On the orders of the Imam, the tents were erected near the river which was a tributary of the River Eupheretes some miles away. The date was 2nd Muharram 61 Hijri (3rd October 680 AD).

Book:  A review on the story of Imam Hussein’s (God bless him) martyrdom
Writer:  Ayatullah Professor Hussein Ansarian

Abu Mokhnaf,[1] Mazandarany,[2] Behbahany[3] and Ghandoozy have narrated the returning of Zuljanah to the tents in this way that when Imam Hussein (God bless him) fell down from the saddle after the poisonous three-pronged arrow hit his heart and he martyred, his horse came neighing near the body of Imam (God bless him) and kissed his body by its lip and smelled his body while this animal was crying and its tear was pouring from its eyes like a mother who is grieving. Zuljanah colored its mane with Imam’s (God bless him) blood and came back to the tents while its saddle was upside down and neighing and was hitting its head against the earth and came around the tents.
By hearing the neigh of horse, sainthood Zaynab (God bless her) told to Sakina (God bless her) “I think your father comes back and he has brought water, go and welcome him;” but when Sakina (God bless her) came out and saw the horse, she shouted “O father! O Hussein (God bless him)…”[4] it has been come in Ziyarat-e-Nahiya which ascribes to Imam Mahdi (we praise God for his advent) “when the women and daughters saw the horse, with the condition that its saddle has been upside down, all of them disheveled their hairs under the veil of chastity and hit their faces and after those amount of honor, now they had to be captured by the enemies after the martyrdom of Imam Hussein (God bless him), so they wailed and ran toward ghatlegah (a place where someone was killed).[5]
It has been narrated in Ershad from Sheikh Mofid that sainthood Zaynab (God bless her) shouted “Omar-Ibn-Saad! They are killing my Hussein (God bless him), are you watching?” Omar-Ibn-Saad didn’t answer. Imam Ali’s (God bless him) daughter turned to the corps of enemy and said “ouch to you! Are there any Muslim among you?” no one answered her again. Shemer called the corps and told them “May your mother be mournful for you! What are you doing? What are you waiting for? Then they rushed into the ditch of ghatlegah from every direction and attacked to the body of Imam Hussein (God bless him) by arrows, lances and swords.[6]

[1] Maghtalo Alhussein (God bless him), Abu Mokhnaf, Page N.148-149
[2] Maalio-al-Sebtein, Volume N.2, Page N.51-52
[3]Aldamato Alsakeba, Volume N.4, Page N.364-365
[4]Yanabyo-al-Mavadah, Alghandoozy, Volume N.3, Page N.84

[5] Almazaro Alkabeer, Mohammad-Ibn-Mashhady, Page N.504, Quotation N.9; ; Behar-al-Anvar, Volume N.98, Page N.322
[6]Alershaad, Almofid, Volume N.2, Page N.112 
The Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar during the 16th and 17th centuries even donned blackened garments and helped to arrange the Kala Tazia (Black Tazia) processions. Even the Scindias of Gwalior and the Holkar Maharajas of Indore conducted  Majlis or Muharram congregations.

Shiite Islam has deep rooted influence in present and history of India from North to South with various Shia Muslim dynasties ruling Indian provinces from time to time. Few prominent ones of the Indian Shia Muslim dynasties are as follows:

*Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527 AD)
*Sharqi Dynasty (1394 CE to 1479 CE)
*Berar Sultanate (1490-1572 AD)
*Bidar Sultanate (1489-1619 AD)
*Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518–1687 AD)
*Adil Shahi dynasty (1527–1686 AD)
*Nawab of Awadh (1722-1858 AD)
*Najafi Nawabs of Bengal (1757–1880)
*Nawab of Rampur
*Nizams of Hyderabad State(1724–1948 AD)


Name   : Noor Allah Shustari s/o Sayed Mohammed Sharif al Hussain

Titles     :Qazi and Zia al Deen   Kunyat : Abul Majd

Born     :   On :  956 H (1549 A.D.)                               At: Shustar, Khuzistan, Iran

Martyred: 26 Rabi al Awwal 1019 H                             At   Agra, India:

Age       :    63 years

 We would like to discuss at some length about how Islam came to India and who were the august personalities who made supreme sacrifices to pave the way for the followers of the Al e Mohammed (s.a) to follow theTrue Faith without any fear or hindrance. Therefore we shall have to highlight the circumstances under which shaheed Saalis was martyred under the sword of the Islamic Rulers! From the period of Allama Hilli the experts in the Jafari Fiqh were the important targets of the establishments of those days. We can list 4 or 5 eminent Mujtahids who were martyred. In this series we have already discussed about the first two martyrs. We are now discussing about the Shaheed e Saalis, the Third Martyr, Qazi Noor Allah Shustari. There has been difference of opinion among the eminent Ulema as to who was the third martyr, the fourth and the fifth. TheUlema in the Sub-Continent have been unanimous in their opinion that Qazi Noor Allah Shustari is the Shaheed e Saalis (The Third Martyr). The obvious reason for this opinion is the great sacrifice he made and the propagation of the word of the Ahl e Bayt (a.s) that wasa done by him against all odds. Allama Mohammed Taqi of Iran is termed as Shaheed e Rabeh (the Fourth Martyr). But many Ulema of the Sub-Continentare of opinion that this privilege must go to a cleric of Delhi who had written a fitting reply for the infamous book “Tohfa e Asna Ashariya” and therefore he was poisoned to death by his enemies.The Ulema in the Middle East list Mulla Mohammed Taqi as the Third Martyr and Baqir al Sadr as the Fourth Martyr. Noor Allah Shustari doesn’t find a place in their listing. But one should remember that his greatness as a scholar and jurist is recognized by one and all.


The given name of Shaheed e saalis was Noor Allah and the title was Qazi and Zia al Deen. His Kunyat was Abul Majd. His father was Mohammed Sharif al Hussain and he was a Sayed descending from the 4thImam, Imam Zain al Abedeen (a.s). Shaheed e Saalis belonged to the clan of Mar-ashi Sayeds. He has descended from the Imam Zada, a scion of the 4th Imam (a.s), who settled down in Mar-ash. Qazi Noor Allah was born at Shustar in the Khuzistan Province of Iran in the year 956 H (which is equivalent to 1549 A.D). His intial education was in the tutelage of his father and uncle. At the age of 19 years, in 974 H he moved to Mashahd e Muqdis for higher education.and got admitted to the Hauza e Ilmia, the Seminary, there. When he was at the age of 35 years, in 993 H, he felt there was the need of his services in India and therefore, he migrated there from Mashad. From 993 H to 1019 H, a period of 26 years he spent in different centers of the sprawling country. On 26 Rabi al Awwal, 1019 H, a functionary of the Moguls, on the orders of King Jehangir, martyred him at the age of 63 years and he has been interred near the city of Agra. His mausoleum is visited by the Momineen with great veneration to this day. Of his monumental work, 140 books have been the books of history. He has lot more publications to his credit that are spread far and wide in the Sub Continent. One will not be far wrong if he says that the Shia Faith established firm roots in the Sub Continent because of his untiring efforts which ultimately became the cause of his Martyrdom.


Before we go into the details of the services of Shaheed e Saalis, we must look at the scenario that developed ever since the period of Bani Omayya to that of Bani Abbas and later. With the Bani Omayya heaping untold hardships on the Sayeds, they moved to Khorasan. Bani Abbas too made Khorasan the center of thewir activity to chanllenge the Bani Omayya. But once they came into power, they became as cruel to the followers of Al e Mohammed (s.a) as the bani Omayya, or more so. A lot of the followers of the Al e Mohammed (s.a) had perforce to migrate from Khorasan and the nearest and the best place for them to seek refuge was India. Some historians say that one of the reasons for Mohhamed bin Qasim attacking Sind on the orders of Hajaj bin Yusuf was the succor that the raja had given to Sayeds who flew from Hijaz, Basra andKoofa unable to withstand the tyranny of Hajaj bin Yusuf. Hajaj bin Yusuf wanted the Raja to hand these people to him but he was a man of honor and said that he had given refuge to them and wouldn’t hand them over to anyone.This is very clear that the area in Sind, from Thatt to Multan, was where the followers of Al e Mohammed (a.s) settled in India. Many of them were the progeny of the Imams (a.s). Then they moved toGujrat and other parts of India. Again another period of adversity started for the followers of Al e Mohammed (s.a) and they migrated in large numbers from Iran and Iraq to India. This calamity was the invasion ofChangez Khan and Halaku Khan. Hundreds of thousands of people migrated enmasse and Delhi became an important center for the followers of Al e Mohammed (s.a). One tyrannical ruler, Firuz Thughluk, has written in his memoirs, “Praise be to Allah! During my reign the Rafizis had started gaining importance but I din’t take rest till I annihilated the last one of them!” Firuz advanced and the followers of al e Mohammed (s.a) scattered. Some went to Kashmir and others went to the southern areas of the Deccan and Mysore. In the Deccan area there was one erudite scholar by name, Mulla Mohammed Tahir, who propagated the Deen e Ahl e Bayt (a.s). It became so prominent that the names of the 12 Imams (a.s) were included in the sermons during the Friday Congregations! The official faith of the realm was declared as Atna Ashari and it was announced that praising the enemies of Ale Mohammed (s.a) was a crime! The Faith of Al e Mohammed (s.a) spread in all the small Sultanates of the Deccan. Because of this development, theUlema from Mashad, Qum and other parts of Iran were nvited to come over to the Deccan. But in the northern parts of India the rulers were mostly inimical to the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s)

In the northern areas the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) had to live in Taqayya (Dissimulation) because of the fear of the establishment there.They however wanted a cleric to guide them in the norms of their faith. Those days the king in Delhi was the Moghul Humayun. Humayun was abjectly defeated by his enemy, Sher Shah, and he had to flee to Iran. There he learned that Iran was a big power those days and if the king gave him support, he could win back his kingdom in Delhi. The king in Iran those days was Tahmasp who was a great friend of the erudite scholars and was keenly interested in the propagation of the Faith of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Humayun lived in Iran for several years. King Tahmasp’s sister advised him to acquaint Humayun with the Faith by enlightening him with the true facts about it. When these two kings met, there used to be recitations of poetry and eulogies. With the advice of the king’s sister eulogies of the Al e Mohammed (s.a) too were recited. Slowly and steadily, the truth about the Faith started dawning on Humayun. After remaining a guest of King Tahmasp for many years Humayun requested for his help to reclaim his kingdom of Delhi. Tahmasp made some conditions and one of them was that there were the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) in India who should be allowed to live peacefully and not oppressed as was done by the earlier Sultans in those parts. Humayun agreed to these terms and Tahmasp organized a strong force to support the army of Humayun. Most of the men in the army of king Tahmasp were Shias. Their arrival into India certainly had its effect that the Shias came into some prominence, but most of the Muslims in the country were the enemies of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). As mentioned earlier the arrival of the Iranian army had a salutary effect on the conditions in the country. There is another coincidence that the consort of Humayun, Hamida Bano was a friend of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s).Therefore, during the reign of Humayun, the Azadari or public mourning to commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (a.s) commenced in the country. Humayun’s vizier, Bairam Khan, who came from Iran, too was an ardent friend of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Within about 14 to 15 months of reclaiming his dynasty Humayun fell from a staircase and succumbed to the injuries. Then his young son, who was only 12 years old, ascended the throne. Bairam Khan was the regent. The entire army consisted of locals and the Iranian forces had already departed.

Now a blame came on Bairam Khan that he was a Shia and that he was showing nepotism towards men of his faith for important positions. They therefore claimed that he ought to be dismissed from his position. Akbar,who was an inexperienced and ignorant youth those days, was carried away with the talk of the enemies and removed Bairam Khan from the service. Bairam Khan started for the Haj pilgrimage and was assassinated by an Afghan on the way. Now Akbar was encircled by Ulema who were professed enemies of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Their main aim was to keep the young monarch in check and amass wealth. History records that theseUlema had become very rich and their treasuries were replete with bricks of gold! Those days if there was the slightest doubt on a person that he was a friend of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s), he would be executed publicly! WhenAkbar was surrounded by the enemies of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s), there were some Ulema who were calling themselves the Aalams or the Chief Clerics. Their effort was that no person who had the slightest liking for theAhl al Bayt should be allowed to come near Akbar. The tendency of the commoners was that on the slightest indication that a deceased person was a Shia they would desecrate his grave. It is said that Mir Murtada Khan was a very revered person of Delhi. When he died the entire population joined the funeral procession and he was interred in the graveyard of the Muslims. After some days when his will was purused, it was found that he was a follower of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). The crowds that revered him till a day earlier, and vyed with one other to give their shoulder to his bier, today attacked the graveyard and dug out his body out of the grave saying that he had no right to be interred in the graveyard of the Muslims. Saying this, they threw away the cadaver from there. This enmity was the reason that the followers of the Ahl al Bayt from the north were heading for the Deccan where the Faith of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) was recognized as the official creed. A good number of Ulema had already reached there and even an Aalim of the other school, Mulla Ahmed, had accepted the faith of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) and that too in a very peculiar manner. Mulla Ahmed used to live in a place called Thhat. One night he saw Hazrat Amir al Momineen (a.s) in his dream with a commentary of the Holy Quran in his hand. He told to Mulla Ahmed that it was the Tafseer e kashaf. Hazrat Ali (a.s) asked him to recite the following verse from the book:

Innama wailakum Allah wa Rasoolahu wal lazeena aamanu al lazeena yaqemoonas Salat wa yutoonaz Zakat wa hum Raak e oon

Your wali (guardian) is Allah and His Prophet and those Believers of the Faith who give Zakat (Charity) in the state of Ruku (Genuflection)

When Mulla Ahmed saw this dream, he wasn’t recognizing Hazrat Ali (a.s) as Amir al Momineen (a.s). He just accepted him as the 4th of Khulafa e Rashidin! Now Hazrat Ali (a.s) comes in his dream and asks him to read the commentary of the abovementioned verse from the book “Tafseer eKashaf”. Mulla Ahmed woke up from his dream. Tafseer e Kashaf wasn’t available in the neighborhood. Now, a scholar from Iran, Mulla Mohammed Hassan, was preparing to travel to India. He saw Hazrat Ali (a.s) in his dream who had a copy of Tafseer e kashaf in his hand and said, “O my Follower! You are going to India! Take a copy of this Tafseer with you. You will meet a Momin at a place called Thatt whose name is Mulla Ahmed. Give him the copy of the tafseer.” Mulla Mohammed Hassan awoke from his dream and as ordered by the Imam (a.s) bought a copy of the tafseer. When he reached That he asked the passersby for the place of Mulla Ahmed. He noted down the details of his dream on the last page of the book and sent it through a carrier to Mulla Ahmed. Mulla Ahmed was already confused and worried. With the best efforts he wasn’t able to get a copy of the book and suddenly he finds a person bringing it to him and saying that a cleric from Iraq had asked him to deliver it to him! He also said that on the last page of the book the cleric had written a letter for him. He read the commentary and there was a revolutionary change in his mind. Then he had debates with all the Ulema of the other schools but he wasn’t satisfied with all their arguments. Then he left Thatt and traveled to Mashad. There he acquired the Uloom e Ahl al Bayt (a.s) ---The teachings of the Infallibles. On his way back he learnt that a ruler of the Deccan had invited a person from Mashad, Fath Ali Shirazi, who was not so famous as an Alim as he was known as a scientist. He was a expert in philosophy but he was more adept in science and mathematics. He was known as Bu Ali Sina of his times. When mulla Ahmed was rreturning to India after completing his education at the Hauza e Ilmia in Mashad, he heard that Fath Ali Shirazi was heading for theDeccan. In those days there was a very famous scholar in Agra whose name was Mulla Mubarak. He was born in a family of Thatt, in Sind, but since he was a cleric of some repute, he preferred to move to Agra.Although he wasn’t a Shia, he had some friends in the community. There wasn’t any Alim of his caliber but Akbar was surrounded by sycophants who wouldn’t allow any genuine scholar to come any where near the court!Mulla Mubarak was troubled very much by those sycophants. Mulla Mubarak had two sons, Abul Fazl and Faizi, who later on became very prominent in the court of Akbar. Faizi has written a Tafseer of the Holy Quran where he hasn’t used a single alphabet with a dot. The brilliance of Abul Fazl can be judged from an incident in his childhood. Once his mentor wanted to test him.. Those days there were no chairs in the class rooms. Either they have carpets spread in the room or there used to be plain druggets. The mentor quietly put a paper under the carpet. Abul Fazl looked up and down in surprise as the mentor continued to give the lesson. The mentor asked, “What is the problem!” He repied, “Either the floor has gone higher or the roof has come closer to the ground?” These two brothers were so brilliant that after their death people used to take the sand from near their graves and ask their children to gulp it that they become bright! Mulla Mubarak was a very simple person and wasn’t aware of the intrigues of the court. His competitors knew that he was a capable person and his entry to the court would be harmful to their interests. Then he had no bias against the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) and one of his daughters was married to a Shia. These two things came in the way of his entry to the court. He was therefore forced to leave Agra and moved to a village and there he lived a life of seclusion. But his brilliant sons were becoming famous. Faizi became so well known that Akbar himself invited him to the court.


Those Ulema who were at Akbar’s court became helpless when Faizi entered the portals of the court. He impressed the king so much at his very first meeting that Akbar appointed him his prime minister. Because Faiziwas a learned person, and was in the habit of reading literature, he slowly got attracted to the Shia Faith. But he hadn’t yet adopted the faith. Aftersometime he called his brother Abul Fazl and arranged a meeting with the king. Abul Fazl was more brilliant. Akbar liked him as well, and appointed him as a minister. Although Faizi was attracted to Shi-ism, his brother, Abul Fazl, had made an in-depth study and was already a Shia. Thus, for the first time the followers of Al e Mohammed (s.a) got entry into the court of Akbar. In a short while the brothers realized that the Ulema who had surrounded Akbar were very cleverly taking him for a ride. Their aim was only to amass wealth from the Mogul Court. The brothers thought that it was time to banish the sycophants from the court and bring better and more irudite Ulema in their place. Faizi traveled to the South once where he met Fath Allah Shirazi about whom we have mentioned in the previous paras that he was invited from Mashad to the Deccan. Faizi met the ruler there who gave him the title of Arastu e Zaman—the Aristotle of the Time. On his return, Faizi told Akbar about Fath Allah Shirazi and he was invited to visit Akbar’s Court. The ruler of the Deccan too was helpless because Fath Allah Shirazi had received an invitation from the biggest king in India. Fath Allah Shirazi went to the court along with his friend, Mulla Ahmed, who had become a Shia after getting a vision of Ameer al Momineen (a.s). Now the court had 4 followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). But a large number of persons in the realm were the enemies of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). The conditions were such that the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) had to give Jiziya to the authorities! It was a tax that theChristians and the Jews had to pay. The Shias too were forced to pay this tax. If they refused to comply, they would be put to sword! It was the year 988 H, after 4 or 5 years of the entry of these Ulema in the court.Fath Ali Shirazi had a friend, Hakim Abd al Fazl Gilani. He was also a scientist. He had invented a room in a pond. The water was below and it didn’t enter the room. The room was at the centre of the pond and water was all around it. He was very much respected by Akbar. He said that they were all erudite scholars but none was an Aalim e Deen. All these four Ulema were such experts in their fields that Akbar had but to keep them in his employ.There was none better than Abul fazl in the administration of the realm. Fath Ali Shirazi produced such inventions that Akbar very much wanted him to stay. He was the first in India to make a gun which would have 12 cartridges in it. Those days the guns were to be loaded after every shot. He also invented a canon that would be used for demolishing the ramparts of the forts. He made such a ladder that on pressing a button, a person would reach the top of a hill. He also made a telescope through wihich advancing armies could be viewed from a distance of 100 miles. All the four had tremendous skills but none of them was adept at Fiqh andHadit. Only Ulema in these fields were capable of taking up the propagation of the Faith. Hakim Abd al Fazl Gilani said that in Mashad there was an eminent Aalim, (Qazi) Noor Allah Shustari, who was later on known with the title of shaheed e Saalis. At that time the realm of Shah Abbas Azam was getting established in Iran. Whichever erudite Alim remained there would get a very high position in the court. But when Noor Allah Shustari heard about the need of the followers of Ahl e Bayt (a.s) in India he decided to make a sacrifice and move to the difficult terrain there. Now he made a determination to migrate to India. Let me remind you that Qazi Noor Allah Shustari was born in 953 H in the Khuzistan Province of Iran. In 974 H he came to Mashad. He was endowed with an extraordinary intelligence. From the beginning he used to have very meaningful and learned discussions with his mentors. He himself relates that one day he was sitting with his teacher when a person came and started criticizing the Faith of the Ale Mohammed (s.a) and said that the Shiasbelieve that the Prophet is Masoom (Infallible) before his Baasat (Annunciation). How is it possible for a prophet to be infallible while he has not been annunciated and his Shariah has not yet arrived? Masoom would mean that he is free of all sins. If in the absence of a shariah when there is no idea about which act is virtuous and which is sinful, how would he decide about correctness of his acts? His mentor replied that the Shia belief was that a prophet is pre-destined to be annunciated and he is aware since birth which act is good and which is taboo. Therefore he is a Masoom or Infallible since birth, notwithstanding when he is annunciated. Noor Allah Shustari says that as soon as the mentor gave his explanation, another explanation came in his mind and he smiled for quite some time. When he couldn’t keep quiet any further, he sought the permission of the mentor to interrupt the discussion. When the teacher agreed, he said, “No doubt, before the declaration of the prophethood there is no shariah.but the intelligence has always been there. Whatever is taboo in the eyes of intelligence the prophet should certainly be free of them. No doubt the five prayers were not mandated before the annunciation, but certainly consuming alcoholic beverages was socially taboo before that. The prophet of the future must certainly be known to be free of this taboo habit! The person who had asked the question too was very pleased with this explanation and said that he got the answer to a question that was worrying him for years. This incident is a small digression from our narrative to indicate how intelligent he was from his childhood.


In Shawwal 993 he received a letter inviting him to move to India from Mashad. He decided to move immediately and arrived at the city of Lahore. Those days Akbar was at Agra and the royal fort was under construction in that city. Shaheed e Saalis entered the city in a state of Taqayya (dissimulation). Faizi, Abul Fazl and other ulema talked to Akbar about his erudition and he was given admittance to the court. Akbarentrusted to him a task. He said that he was ruling the entire vast country but the administration of the mountainous tract of Kashmir was very difficult. It wasn’t possible for the administration to determine the population of that province nor the exact area of land. Noor Allah Shustari, on going there, not only surveyed the land but he also made the estimates of the population there. He presented his report to Akbar who was much impressed. He was given some more responsibilities. Thus he completed a period of 2 years in the court of Akbar.


It was the year 995 H and the chief qazi at the court, Qazi Moin ud Deen had grown too old and weak in health. He requested Akbar to allow him to retire. Akbar told Noor Allah Shustari that he considered himself lucky that such an erudite scholar had entered his court. He then asked him to accept the position of the chief qazi. Prior to this he was called Noor Allah Shustari. But from this time he was known as Qazi Noor Allah Shustari. While accepting the position he made only one condition that while delivering justice he will not limit himself to any one Fiqh and deliver the verdict on the basis of any of the Fiqhs, viz: Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafaee or Maliki! Akbar thought what difference it would make when all the Muslims were unanimous in accepting all the four Fiqhs. Once he became the Qazi he started propagating the Faith of Ahl al Bayt (a.s) in a very subtle manner.He also started open application of the Jafari Fiqh in his judgments. After some time some persons were startled. The Ulema of the opposite camp thought that he was giving all the verdicts based on theJafari Fiqh. They started complaining in the court of Akbar. Qazi Noor Allah spent 26 years in this position. When more complaints reached the ears of the king, he called him and asked him how true it was that he gave verdicts according to the Jafari Fiqh?  He asked Akbar to give a proof if he has given the verdict according to the Jafari Fiqh. He told the king, and explained to him, that the verdict was in accord with the Hanbali Fiqh. Qazi Noor Allah Shustari was certainly giving the verdicts according to the Jafari Fiqh, but it was so cleverly given that it was also according to one of the 4 Fiqhs! It was in fact his command over his own Fiqh and the other 4 Fiqhs that had the approval of the estabklishment of the time. One case of Mutaa had come up. Akbar was himself interested in this case. Qazi Noor Allah Shustari opined that Mutaa was certainly legitimate. When the verdict was pronounced in the court the Ulema of the other sects made a lot of hue and cry in the court saying that it was adultery and Haram and that it wasn’t legitimate in any of the Fiqhs. Qazi Noor Allahproved that it was permissible under the Maliki Fiqh. In fact Imam Malik personally opined that Mutaa was legitimate. Qazi Noor Allah proved it from the Maliki Fiqh. Although Akbar was an ignorant person, he was enjoying the proceedings. The Ulema of the other schools were already upset that a scholar of the Shia Faith had barged into the court and also had become the chief Qazi. Not only this, he was very cleverly getting away giving a verdict on the delicate problem of Mutaa according to his own Fiqh taking shelter behind the Maliki Fiqh. They were now waiting for an opportunity to turn the tables against him. In slow stages the Fiqh Jafarigained ascendance over the other Four Fiqhs. The opponents now started intrigues. They manipulated an attempt on the life of Mulla Ahmed in Lahore during the year 996 H. Akbar learned about it and issued a decree to apprehend and execute his killer. But the population of Lahore was misled by the Ulema of the other side. While Akbar was away at Kashmir, they dug up his grave and put the cadaver to flame.This was a clear expression of their enmity against the followers of the Ahl e Bayt (a.s). After two years of this, Shirazi passed away. After seven years Faizi died.. Now only Abul Fazt was there in the court. But Qazi Noor Allah Shustari continued his role assiduously. He now had a roster of about 1,500 disciples. He was training them and sending them on to the other parts of the country. He was still in Taqayya (Till the time of King Jehangir he hadn’t come out of dissimulation). One sentence came out of his mouth that Ali Alaihis Salam had said such and such a thing. The Ulema of the other schools raised their voices saying that the suffix (Alaihis Salam) was only for the prophets. Since he had used it for Hazrat Ali (a.s) Qazi Noor Allah was to be punished with execution! This Fatwa was read in the court of Akbar. But one of the Ulema wasn’t so bigoted. He read a couplet in the court:' Gar lahmak lahmi Hadit e nabawi haiBay Salle ala naam e Ali bay adabi hay ' If ‘Alis’ flesh is my flesh is tne Nabi (s.a)’s traditionThen taking Ali’s name without ‘Salle Ala’ is gross bad manners!.

In Akbar’s court the problem was somehow resolved. Akbar died after 50 years.Just prior to Akbar’s demise, under Jehangir’s orders , the last Shia vizier of the court was put to sword.


When Akbar died, Jehangir ascended to the throne. From the beginning Jehangir was surrounded by the enemies of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). They had moulded his mind in such a way that he had become the most bigoted person. But it was the grace of the Almighty that in the court was Noor Jehan who made her best efforts to give protection to the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). But during the reign of Jehangir a bigoted group led bySheik Ahmed Sirhindi raised its head. This group was worried that the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) were organizing themselves fast in the country. This Ahmed Sirhindi was also given the title of Mujaddad Alf Saani! This group under him formed a front against Qazi Noor Allah Shustari. Now this group dominated the proceedings in the darbar. In the court this group surrounded him but in the palace his wife was an ardent Shia. Jehangir was a compulsive alcoholic. He was generally in deep intoxication when his senses hardly worked. In such a state the group of Ulema were poisoning his mind against Qazi Noor Allah Shustari and his queenNoor Jehan was making efforts to protect the people professing the Faith of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Jehangir once told those Ulema to bring an incontrovertible proof against the Qazi that he could be executed. The one canard that is very handy for the enemies of the followers of the Ahl e Bayt (a.s) is that they do the malediction of the Prophet (s.a)’s Sahaba was brought forward by that group of Ulema as well. Now when Jehangirsaid that he wanted a proof that the Qazi was an enemy of the Sahaba, the Ulema chanced on a book, Majalis al Momineen, authored by Qazi Noor Allah Shustari. In this book he had penned the profiles of all theInfallibles (a.s) and he also included details about all the companions of the Prophet (s.a) who were the friends of the Ahl al bayt (a.s). He hadn’t discussed about other prominent companions. Thus the Ulema took the book as a proof of his enmity against those companions. The other book that the Qazi was in the process of writing was “Ahqaq al Haq” on the lines of “Nahj al Haq” of Allama Hilli. This book covered all the fivePillars of Shia Islam (from Tawheed to Qiyamat). One very bigoted enemy of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s), a Shafaee Scholar, Fazl ibne Doos Bayan penned a refutation of Allama Hilli’s book with the title of Abtaal al Baatil. Qazi Noor Allah Shustari had penned a fitting rejoinder to the book of Fazl ibne Doos Bayan. This book of the Qazi has been published several times from Najaf e Ashraf and Qom. Recently Aghai Shehab ud Deen Mar-ashi Najafi, who leads the prayers at the mausoleum of Masooma e Qom, has published the book in 15 volumes. Every volume is of about 700 pages. Aghai Najafi has also penned foot-notes which facilitates the reader comprehending the contents more lucidly. Qazi Noor Allah’s enemies were on the look-out for some of his writings that would serve their purpose of poisoning Jehangir’s mind against him. The Qaziwas keeping the book Ahqaq al Haq very carefully. He wasn’t even showing the book to his closest disciples. One person entered his circle of disciples and presented himself as a great admirer of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). In many years he entered so much into the confidence of Qazi Noor Allah Shustari that when the person asked him to lend the book for one night, he couldn’t refuse him. Some historians write that the Qazi didn’t lend him the book and the person stole it from him. The man immediately took the book to those Ulema who read it and immediately drafted a Fatwa against Qazi Noor Allah Shustari. According to a historian 42 Ulema put their seals over the fatwa. Another historian records that the Fatwa was sealed by 55 Ulema. The Ulema declared him a heretic in their Fatwa saying that he had ridiculed the tenets of the Faith in his book and therefore he was fit to be executed. They forwarded the Fatwa to Jehangir. When Jehangir saw the Fatwa, he asked the chiefs of the Ulema about the punishment for such a heretic. They opined that he must be given four punishments: He was to be flogged a hundred times, he was to be forced to drink molten lead, his tongue to be pulled out of the mouth and in the end his head be severed from his body. These punishments were proposed by the chief Ulemaand they wrote them down. Some Fuqaha have said that when Jehangir was about to pass the verdict of execution, Noor Jehan made her best efforts to get amnesty for the Qazi. When Jehangir was signing the death warrant, Noor Jehan caught hold of his hand. But he was brainwashed so completely by the Ulema that in anger he pulled out a burning ember from the fire-place and put on the hand of his consort Noor Jehan. The queen yelled in pain and became unconscious.He had already signed the document which was immediately taken out. The mark of that burn remained on the wrist of Noor Jehan. Jehangir got a special bracelet made to cover that mark on the wrist of the queen. The Qazi’s house was raided, he was arrested and brought to the court. Most of his life was spent in Taqayya. Either he had to seek pardon from the king or to tell him that whatever was reported to him was false and he held the same belief as all other Muslims hold. A friend of his, who was also in Taqayya, asked him to meet the king and tell him that perhaps the Royal Decree was issued because of some misunderstanding and that he too had respect for those Companions. But Qazi Noor Allah Shustari said that his dissimulation at that juncture wasn’t appropriate because his martyrdom for the propagation of theFaith of the Al e Mohammed (a.s) in the country was very important. He thought that with his renown, the sacrifice that he was going to make would strengthen the cause of the Faith. He was interrogated in the court and he agreed to all the allegations (sic) that were leveled against him!


On the orders from Jehangir he was disrobed and the hangman’s noose was put around his neck. Immediately on hanging they started flogging him. With the 15th flog the martyr had breathed his last. But the decree was for100 floggings and they inflicted the flogs on the body of the 63 years old Qazi. They pulled his tongue out and put boiling lead on his head that his skull was exposed. His only crime was that he was a believer in the Ale Mohammed (a.s). Jahangir issued orders for throwing his body on the garbage dump of the Agra City.


The body of Qazi Noor Allah Shustari remained at that place without the shroud and the grave for three days. Then there are three versions about the burial. One version is that he was martyred with the orders of the ruler and the entire population of the city was scared of attempting to do anything. Only two travelers from Afghanistan, who were the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s), took the body from there and interred it. One of the two persons was Sayed Raju Bukhari who had specifically traveled to Agra to meet the Qazi and, in fact, he had met him twice. The second versaion is that when Jehangir slept on the third night after martyring the Qazi, he saw the Prophet (s.a) in his dream who very angrily told him, “You have been very cruel on my son! Why do you not allow his burial?’ Jehangir instantly woke up from the dream and announced in the morning that whoever wanted to give a burial to the Qazi, he was free to do so. Now, the people who were in Taqayya till that time came out in the open and attended the burial of the martyr. The third version, which is more popular is that near Agra there was a place which was a part of Gwalior State. In that place lived an Iranian chieftain. He saw Janab e Syeda (a.s) in his dream when she said,”The body of my son is lying without the shroud and grave outside Agra. If you are my follower, go and bury my son with your own hands.” The next morning he gathered all the Iranian traders along with his own contingent of guards and reached outside the ramparts of the city of Agra. He found the body lying on the garbage dump and Sayed Raju was sitting near the head of the martyr. With great reverence a grave was dug and Saheed e Saalis was interred. He was matyred on 26 Rabi al Awwal and his mausoleum was built in the city of Agra. Ever since then his mausoleum is visited by people with great reverence. People from all faiths and even the Sunni Muslims have been regularly visiting the mausoleum. The beneficence (Faiz) of visiting the graveside of this son of Janab e Syeda (a.s) is that when they make a wish there, Allah fulfils it.One result of this martyrdom was that Qazi Noor Allah’s disciples were endowed with new strength and they worked with greater zeal to propagate the word of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Here I would like to relate one incident. I haven’t read it in any book. But it was related to me by my mentor,Maulana Bandat Hyder Saheb. When Qazi Noor Allah Shustari was martyred, even Noor Jehan had to keep quiet considering the gravity of the situation. But she was waiting for an opportunity to punish the signatories to the Fatwa that became the cause of the Qazi getting martyred..


Noorjehan made a plan to punish those persons in such a way that the State didn’t appear directly involved in it. She was aware that 42 or 55 Ulema were involved in the conspiracy to martyr Qazi Noor Allah Shustariand there could be a popular unrest if any official action was instituted against them. Noorjehan at last got the opportunity of exposing these Ulema in front of the people.One day she got a report that the chief of thoseUlema was leading a congregation. While he was reciting the Surat al Fateha, he interrupted it by saying “Hush, hush”, three or four times, as if chasing away some animal. When the prayer was over, people asked him why he interrupted the recitation of the Verse. He said, “When I pray, all the curtains are raised in front of my eyes and I see the Holy Kaaba in front of my eyes!While I was praying I saw a dog was trying to enter theKaaba.If I hadn’t done “Hush, hush” to chase it away, the dog wuld have entered the Kaaba and defiled its sanctity. Therefore I uttered those words to chase it out! Noorjehan now determined to wreak vengeance against them. She got a small palce constructed with a foundation of salt. She sent an invitation to all those Ulema. All of them were very pleased to attend the party given by the queen. They all reached the venue in a group. Excellent food was prepared for the repast. The service cloth was arranged on the floor in such a manner that in front of everyone there was kept palao made of rice and chicken. Whether it was done intentionally, or it was just a chance, that the person who had chased the dog away from the Kaaba got a plate in front of him which neither had chicken nor meat! He looked to his left and to his right and every plate had plenty of chicken in it. How could he eat shuch food. He became angry and said that the Ulema of lower status were being served chicken and he was given only rice. Hearing this, Noorjehan said,”Slightly stir the rice in the dish, perhaps you will find something underneath it!” He stirred the rice and he did find legs of chicken there. Noorjehan now said, “One who cannot see a piece of chicken in his plate, how could he possibly see a dog entering the Kaaba from his prayer mat in the Mosque?” Then Noorjehan moved out of the palace and ordered his servants to copiously throw water all along the four walls of the palace. Since the palace was built on a foundation of salt, the salt melted and the structure collapsed on the heads of those persons who had put their seals on the Fatwa for the execution of the innocent Qazi Noor Allah Shustari! As mentioned earlier, I haven’t read about this incident in any book of history and that I heard it as a word of mouth from an honest Maulana. But one thing is for sure, that the martyrdom of Qazi Noor Allah Shustari redoubled the enthusiasm of the followers of the Al e Mohammed (S.A) to redouble their efforts to propagate the Faith in the vast country. Thereafter, in the court of every king there certainly was one Shia vizier or the other. Mohammed Shah was Aurangzeb’s son. The reins of power were in his hands. There was a time when Shias were forced to pay the Jiziya Tax and now sat on the throne one who was a follower of the Al e Mohammed (s.a). Then came the two Sayed Brothers,who are known in the books of history as the King Makers. They had so much power that they put kings on the throne at will! The minds of the rulers changed so much that the Last Mogul, Bahadur Shah Zafar, during an illness, made a vow that on recovering he would make a Nazr (Offering) at the Dargah of Hazrat Abbas at Lucknow! This was the sacrifice of Shaheed e Saalis that the society in the Mogul Realm transformed so fast and the persecuted Shias could breathe easy.The cruel persons who martyred him thought that they were removing a thorn from their way, but the the things that happened were quite contrary to their expectations. The same thought was in the mind of Yazid when he perpetrated the tragedy of Karbala. Yazid thought that he would intimidate the Ale Mohammed (s.a) by bringing them into the court. But Syed e Sajjad (a.s) boldly stood up. The darbar was full to capacity and the ambassadors of foreign countries were seated in a corner. No sooner Syed e Sajjad (a.s) entered the auditorium, Yazid said, “I thank God that He has belittled you!” Instead of getting intimidated with this affront, Syed e Sajjad stood up and said, “O’Yazid! We thank Allah that he deemed us capable of facing His trial! We also thank Allah that he has endowed us with such felicity that none can compete with us! Contemptible and dishonored are those who tried to belittle our family!” Yazid heard these words and knew that his objective was nullified. To cover his feeling of humiliation and mortification he summoned the executioner and told him to behead Syed e Sajjad (a.s). Yazid thought that if Syed e Sajjad (a.s) was martyred there, the ladies of the House of the Prophet (s.a) would get overawed.Syed e Sajjad (a.s) just said these words:  Al maut lana aadat wa karamatana ShahadatDeath is a habit for us and felicity is Martyrdom!

The ladies, instead of getting intimidated, stood solemnly and the sister of the Martyr Hussain (a.s), Syeda Zainab went forward, stood in front of Syed e Sajjad (a.s), and said, “None can touch Sajjad (a.s), my nephew, till I am alive! First use the sword on my neck!” Seeing this, Fizza, the maid of Syeda Fatima Zehra (a.s), stood in front of Syeda Zainab. Yazid told to the executioner, “First behead this old woman fromHabsh!” Fizza looked aoround in the court and spotted 200 chiefs from Habsh. She called, “O’ the Chiefs of my country! What has happened to your self respect? I am being insulted in front of you!” The 200 chiefstook out their swords and challenged Yazid to call back the executioner or else there would flow a river of blood in the Darbar. Syeda Zainab became emotional. She turned in the direction of Madina and said, “O’ My Grand father, the Prophet (s.a)! 200 swords have been brandished in support of a maid, but there is none to support your daughter!”

Original Source: Urdu Lectures of Moulana Sadiq Hassan Book

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Martyrdom of Qazi Nurullah and his tomb: -After the death of Mughal emperor Akbar (1605 A.D.) the bigoted group again rose to power at the imperial court. He was martyred on 18th Jamadi al-Thani in 1019 A.H./ 1610 A .D. for the reason that the he differed in his belief with the majority of the people and the bigoted group at the court of Jahangir (1605 - 1627 A.D.), the successor of Akbar.
His tomb, which is at Agra, has been the centre of pilgrimage since the day of his martyrdom. Poets praised him in their literary compositions in his lifetime and even after his martyrdom. Besides that many of his works with the description of his life have been translated into Arabic, Persian and Urdu.